News & Notices
A new report co-authored by Dr Isabelle Sin, Te Pūnaha Matatini Principal Investigator from Motu Economic and Public Policy Research (pictured), has revealed that mothers experience an average 4.4% wage decrease after having a baby.
The report’s findings made the front page of the New Zealand Herald print edition, with commentary from Associate Professor Siouxsie Wiles – also a Te Pūnaha Matatini Principal Investigator – and her husband and mathematician Professor Steven Galbraith, both from the University of Auckland. Check out the article here. Isabelle Sin was also interviewed on RNZ’s Nine To Noon – listen in here.
The 2018 Kiwibank New Zealander of the Year Gala Awards were held in Auckland last night, with much-admired Kristine Bartlett, rest-home carer and pay equity campaigner in the healthcare sector, taking out the top honour.
Kristine’s fellow nominees included Mike King, well-known comedian turned mental health and suicide prevention campaigner, and our very own Siouxsie Wiles, award-winning microbiologist and science communicator, and principal investigator with Te Pūnaha Matatini.
Siouxsie’s research involves diseases that affect vulnerable children, in particular how to reduce the high rates of infectious diseases in New Zealand kids.
Professor Shaun Hendy, Director of Te Pūnaha Matatini, says it was was an incredible achievement for Siouxsie to be named as one of the three finalists for Kiwibank New Zealander of the Year.
“She is an inspiring role model for everyone at Te Pūnaha Matatini and we are all incredibly proud to work with her,” says Shaun. “Siouxsie is driven by her curiosity about the world and a desire to make a difference in people’s lives. She thinks very deeply about the ethics and impact of her work, and this is evident in the problems she chooses to study and the approach she takes to this study. She is also a passionate believer in making science transparent to the public, and strives to make it accessible to everyone. Siouxsie works hard to make it so that science is something for everyone, not just a privileged few.”
Congratulations Siouxsie for your magnificent mahi and for being a great Kiwi. Aroha nui!
If you haven’t already seen the official awards’ video tribute to Siouxsie, here it is:
What better news to start the year than one of our Principal Investigators featuring on the 2018 New Year Honours List?
Sally Davenport, Professor of Technology and Innovation Management at Victoria University of Wellington, Director of the ‘Science for Technological Innovation’ National Science Challenge and Commissioner at the New Zealand Productivity Commission, has made the list in becoming a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit (MNZM) for services to science.
Since beginning her career as a science and technology lecturer at Victoria University of Wellington in 1991, Sally has certainly emerged as one the country’s strongest voices and most passionate leaders in the fields of science, technology, management and innovation.
Well done Sally. All of us here at Te Pūnaha Matatini extend our warmest congratulations for your thoroughly well-deserved appointment. Read more about Sally here.
Te Pūnaha Matatini Whānau PhD student Caleb Gemmell from the University of Auckland was recently interviewed by the NZ Herald about his ground-breaking research using social network analysis to examine ancient artefact movement in pre-European New Zealand.
Supervised by Principal Investigators Dion O’Neale and Thegn Ladefoged, Caleb’s research stems from work being done in a larger study funded by a Marsden grant.
To read the NZ Herald article and find out more about Caleb’s research, please see here.
Several Te Pūnaha Matatini researchers around New Zealand have been successful in securing major funding for their research, about $4.2 million in total, from the Royal Society Te Apārangi’s 2017 Marsden Fund round.
Marsden Fund applications are very competitive. This year, it distributed an overall total of $84.6 million to more than 130 research projects across the country.
— Marsden Fund (@MarsdenFund) November 1, 2017
Professor Shaun Hendy, director of Te Pūnaha Matatini, says the current round was the largest number of Marsden projects awarded in one year and one of the highest success rates since 2003. “This is due to the largest real increase in funding since the Marsden Fund was created.”
“It is also pleasing that this large increase in funding didn’t simply lead to more proposals being submitted, which would have lowered the success rate and increased the burden across the sector.”
Successful projects involving Te Pūnaha Matatini investigators
Research supported by the Marsden Fund led by Te Pūnaha Matatini investigators will address diverse range of topics:
- Professor Stephen Marsland and Associate Professor Isabel Castro (Massey) – AviaNZ: Making sure New Zealand birds are heard ($880,000).
- Professor Murray Cox (Massey) – From genotypes to phenotypes: Quantifying the functional load ($925,000).
- Professor Uli Zuelicke and Professor Michele Governale (Victoria) – Supercharging electromagnetism: Tuneable magnetoelectricity in unconventional materials ($905,000).
- Associate Professor Claire Postlethwaite (Auckland) – Noisy networks: understanding how stochasticity affects mathematical models of cognitive systems ($545,000).
- Professor Richard Easther (Auckland) – Ultralight dark matter: Dynamics and astrophysics ($910,000).
“It is fantastic to see the success of a number of Te Pūnaha Matatini researchers in the latest Marsden round,” says Professor Hendy. “The Marsden Fund supports fundamental, blue-skies research, so this suite of projects will stimulate and inspire the whole Te Pūnaha Matatini collaboration over the next few years.”
Investigator Professor Marsland says that being awarded the funding means his team can now get down to the business of conducting valuable research. “We can focus research effort on the conservation needs of New Zealand birds, and keep New Zealand at the forefront of methods of adaptive wildlife management, as well as developing novel mathematical methods for dealing with acoustic signals.”
“It also shows us that other people in New Zealand value our approach.”
Professor Murray Cox, a computational biologist in the Institute of Fundamental Sciences at Massey University in Palmerston North and a Principal Investigator at Te Pūnaha Matatini, was recently awarded the prestigious Te Rangi Hīroa Medal by the Royal Society Te Apārangi, in recognition of his anthropological work involving the use of genetic data to reconstruct processes of transformation and change in past societies.
Combining genetics and statistical modelling to reveal insights into past societies
Professor Cox’s skills in genetics and statistical modelling have allowed him to ascertain various features of how past societies operated and the social rules they followed, such as those pertaining to marriage (who can marry who).
Using genome-scale data and a novel simulation framework, Professor Cox examined an archetypal example of a key marriage system within a small community on the east Indonesian island of Sumba. His research found that the community had relaxed compliance with the rules, suggesting that marriages were sufficiently flexible to promote social connectivity without negative biological consequences.
Professor Cox has also used statistical modelling to determine how farming expansions across Southeast Asia influenced changes in demographics and social behaviours. Using 2,300 genomic records, individuals with Asian ancestry were found to migrate further and have higher birth rates than individuals with Papuan ancestry.
Early migration from Asia to the Pacific
Another area of Professor Cox’s research is tracing the genetic heritage of the first people in the Pacific. Analysis of ancient DNA from three individuals who were among the earliest to settle in Vanuatu (up to 3,100 years ago) and one of the earliest to settle in Tonga (up to 2,700 years ago), confirmed they were from Asian farming groups rather than of suspected Papuan ancestry.
Pacific people today, including New Zealand Māori, carry Papuan versions of genes. Professor Cox’s research methods have made it possible to investigate how this mixing occurred. They show it was a later mixing, largely driven by Papuan men who came to Oceania and married resident Asian women.
“Genetics has been really powerful at telling us when people moved into the Pacific and what paths they took to get there. But how they acted along the way has largely been a black box,” said Professor Cox.
“It’s only in the last few years that we’ve realised that some of these social behaviours are recorded in the genetics too. It’s telling a whole new story to interweave with those from archaeology, linguistics and oral history.”
— Tracy Riley (@tllriley) October 10, 2017
It is often difficult to find accurate information online, especially when it comes to science-based questions. This is amplified by the fact that scientific findings themselves are revisable or when they are the subject of debate within their respective fields. However, not being able to find concrete answers to scientific questions may lead the public to question and discount the general veracity of science.
Te Pūnaha Matatini invites you to a free lecture by Professor Rainer Bromme, Senior Professor for Educational Psychology, University of Münster, Germany, who will provide an overview of data collected from surveys in multiple countries on the public’s trust in science, and also discuss research on peoples’ capacities to make trust judgments.
In the best case scenario, such judgments are not based on gullible faith in ‘science’, but rather rest on informed trust. Such trust judgments are based on a general understanding of both sides of science as: a system of knowledge and methods for understanding the world and as a social institution for the production and distribution of such knowledge.
Event: The ingredients of informed trust: What citizens (need to) know for coping with science experts
Guest Speaker: Professor Rainer Bromme, Senior Professor for Educational Psychology, University of Münster, Germany
- Professor Shaun Hendy, Department of Physics, University of Auckland (MC)
- Associate Professor Nicola Gaston, Department of Physics, University of Auckland
- Dr Daniel Hikuroa, Senior Lecturer, Māori Studies, University of Auckland
- Dr Cate Macinnes-Ng, Senior Lecturer, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland
Location: Auckland Museum
Date & time: Wednesday 25th October from 6-8pm
Tickets are free but bookings are essential.
Please email firstname.lastname@example.org or register here to book tickets.
Do you enjoy craft? Then you probably enjoy mathematics too – you just may not know it yet. Don’t miss out on Maths Craft Festival 2017 being held this coming Saturday and Sunday, September 9-10, at the Auckland Museum.
Discover the maths behind craft and the craft behind maths. Find out how to tie a mathematical knot, crochet a Möbius strip, fold an origami octahedron, draw an impossible triangle, or colour a Latin square.
Ten craft creation stations will be set up in the museum’s event centre, a fully glazed circular room on top of the museum roof. Featuring incredible views of the city and harbour, it also has plenty of natural light – perfect for crafting. And there will be lots of space and seating, so you can stay and craft all day!
Sharing the beauty of maths
Dr Jeanette McLeod and Dr Phil Wilson, senior lecturers at the University of Canterbury’s School of Mathematics and Statistics, will lead a team of volunteers and host the two-day festival, part of a nationwide tour to raise interest in maths among New Zealanders.
“By using craft as a medium… we aim to introduce adults and children alike to a new and fun way of engaging with mathematics,” says Dr McLeod.
“Through these events, we’re keen to show people how maths underpins almost every aspect of today’s society. Whether it’s used in crafts, technology, business, science, social science or education, maths is vital,” she says.
Dr McLeod has crocheted and knitted a variety of mathematical objects – from Möbius strips to intricate coral-like hyperbolic planes – and is passionate about sharing maths as the language of science. Her specialisation is combinatronics, with a particular focus on asymptotic enumeration, graph colouring, random graphs, and Latin squares. She is also an accomplished crafter and crocheter.
Dr Wilson, who usually works in the field of theoretical fluid dynamics and mathematical modelling in biology and industry, says Maths Craft Festival offers something for everyone.
“A lot of our speakers are really good at finding mathematics in ordinary everyday things –from how you tie your shoe laces, tie knots or even how to set a wobbly table straight,” says Dr Wilson. “Maths Craft is really for all ages and all backgrounds.”
Public talks promise to fascinate
The two-day festival will also include five public talks over the course of the weekend:
- Associate Professor Clemency Montelle, University of Canterbury – The (a)symmetry of a sari (September 9, 2.30pm)
- Ms Elizabeth Chesney, University of Canterbury – Knuts about knitting knots (September 9, 3.45pm)
- Associate Professor Burkard Polster, Monash University – What is the best way to lace your shoes? (September 9, 5.15pm)
- Dr Michael Assis, University of Melbourne – The beauty of origami / The beauty of mathematics – connecting folds (September 10, 2.30pm)
- Professor Bernd Krauskopf and Professor Hinke Osinga, University of Auckland – Chaos in Crochet and Steel (September 10, 3.45pm)
Where and when?
Maths Craft Festival is being held at the Auckland War Memorial Museum Events Centre on Saturday 9 September and Sunday 10 September. All are welcome and entry is free with a museum ticket. Maths Craft is running a free bus service from South Auckland to the Museum on Sunday 10th September (see www.mathscraftnz.org/events/maths-craft-festival#bus-service for details of how to book your free seat).
A recent study by researchers at Motu Economic and Public Policy Research provides strong, definitive evidence that sexism is mostly to blame for the gender pay gap in New Zealand.
The study found that, on average, women in New Zealand’s workforce are paid 84 cents for every $1.00 a man earns, despite there being no statistically significant difference in productivity levels between male and female employees.
“This study is different to most previous wage gap studies in that it tests whether men and women are paid different wages for adding the same amount of value to their employer,” said lead researcher Dr Isabelle Sin, Fellow at Motu and Principal Investigator at Te Pūnaha Matatini.
Motu study dispels some common arguments
The researchers analysed New Zealand tax data for 50 per cent of the working population from 2001 to 2011, to determine how much of the overall difference between women and men’s pay could be attributed to women being employed in industries that pay less.
“We found that women were over-represented in low-paying industries like food and beverage services, but this explains a mere 7 per cent of the entire gender wage gap,” Dr Sin said. “If you add in the fact that women also tend to work in low-paying firms, we can say that 12 per cent of the overall gender wage gap is due to the particular industries and firms where women work.”
The study then looked at productivity and wages of New Zealand men and women in private, for-profit organisations with five or more employees. Using employee-level data linked to business information, they found that on average, Kiwi women are paid 16 per cent less than their male counterparts for making a contribution of the same value to their employer.
Overall, the data suggest that sexism is a drag on large segments of New Zealand’s economy, with the gender wage-productivity gap as high as 40 per cent in some sectors – in finance and insurance, telecommunications, transport equipment manufacturing, water and air transport, and electricity, gas and water, and rail.
“It’s worth noting that these are all sectors that have the potential for monopoly-created profits and have low competition,” said Dr Sin. “To put it simply, our research suggests sexism is likely to be a major driver of the gender wage gap. What we’re going to do about it is another matter.”
NEW paper: women & men add same value to their firms, but average woman paid only 84 cents for every $1 for average man. pic.twitter.com/chAMk1fAXd
— Motu Research (@moturesearch) August 28, 2017
Quality of the data make findings difficult to ignore
Professor Tava Olsen from the University of Auckland, Director at the New Zealand Centre for Supply Chain Management and Deputy Director, Industry and Stakeholder Engagement at Te Pūnaha Matatini, described the results as “pretty definitive”.
“There is a gap and [because the study researchers] were able to get firm-level data on productivity, there’s really no explanation for it other than implicit bias or sexism,” said Professor Olsen.
The Motu research is a lot harder to ignore than previous studies due to its sheer size and the nature or quality of the data collected, she added.
“It’s not until you get a really big study like this that you can say ‘Oh yes, there is actually a problem here.’ Obviously, this isn’t the first study to show gender pay gaps, it’s just a very clean one in terms the data they got access to,” she said. “I doubt there are many countries who allow researchers access to their tax data… If you think about it, it’s pretty phenomenal.
“So I think this is quite important research in terms of showing there is a real gap. There is a problem here and it’s not really okay,” said Professor Olsen.
“Hopefully, companies will start putting procedures in place to check themselves and try and start looking at their own gender gaps.”
Sin I., Stillman S., Fabling R. (August 2017). What drives the gender wage gap? Examining the roles of sorting, productivity differences, and discrimination. Motu Working Paper 17-15 Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
Te Pūnaha Matatini is a major contributor to the Aotearoa-New Zealand Science Journalism Fund, which recently awarded $20,000 in funding to several New Zealand science journalists to cover stories ranging from genomics to driverless vehicles to climate change.
This first round of funding received 20 applications, with six projects involving journalists from a variety of media outlets across the country being selected.
“Overall, we were extremely impressed with the range and quality of the applications – from established science journalists to relative newcomers, from a range of media and from around the country,” said the fund’s founder Dr Rebecca Priestley.
We’re delighted to announce first round of funding! We had 20 applications and have funded 6 projects https://t.co/ANuD79A5Id 1/8
— NZ Sci Journalism (@scijournofund) August 20, 2017
Controversial technologies to be covered
Within the fund’s category on ‘Controversial technologies: Should we even go there?’ Te Pūnaha Matatini is funding three projects to a total of $10,000, as follows:
- $4,500 to Naomi Arnold (New Zealand Geographic article)
- $4,000 to Simon Morton (RNZ’s This Way Up feature)
- $1,500 to William Ray (RNZ’s Our Changing World series)
All of the projects are expected to be published by the end of 2017, after which they will be available under Creative Commons licence. Science journalists from around New Zealand will then have a second opportunity to apply for funding through the Aotearoa-New Zealand Science Journalism Fund in early 2018.
“Round one showed that journalists want to work on important science-related stories and that there is appetite to fund them doing so,” said Dr Priestley. “We are looking forward to seeing these projects come to fruition and to working on securing funding for round two.”
How to support the Aotearoa-New Zealand Science Journalism Fund
Interested readers and organisations wishing to support the fund can do so by emailing Dr Rebecca Priestley at email@example.com or through the Aotearoa-New Zealand Science Journalism Fund Press Patron crowd-funding page.